Own Research – Magnum Talk – The Journey with Matt Black and Antoine d’Agata Barbican October 2 2017

A great journey has long been regarded as an access point to creativity, to new experiences, places and people, and often to introspection and self-learning.

I was looking forward to hearing David Campney in this talk, but at the last minute he was replaced by Aaron Schuman, and to be honest I was a little disappointed in his interview technique. He did not seem to bring the best out of either men. However, that could just have been their personalities….

Matt Black and Antoine d’Agata were in conversation, ‘exploring the concept of the journey as a structure for visually responding to the world.’ They discussed their personal take on the photographic road trip and how the journey can be used as a framework for making photographs.

Matt Black

Matt Black is from California’s Central Valley, an agricultural region in the heart of the state. His work has explored the connections between migration, poverty, agriculture, and the environment in his native rural California and in southern Mexico.

For over 20 years, photographer Matt Black explored the issues of poverty, migration and farming in California’s Central Valley, examining the extreme economic hardship in one of the country’s richest states and is highly critical of the contrast in the richest nation in the world also having these pockets of huge deprivation. He photographed people living at or below the poverty line. According to MSNBC, fully 45 million people living in the US ‘meet the official guidelines for poverty’ many are undocumented immigrants from Mexico. Apparently there are 250K more Mexicans in California than in Mexico, leaving ghost towns behind. Mexico has lost 80% of its population, which is a staggering figure.

Black was inspired by the work of the FSA but he believed they should have documented the black Africans more than they did, he followed one family, tracking down Hayley Jones, the daughter of the original migrants, and three generations later she is still working in the fields. There is a distinct lack of opportunity and mobility.

In 2014 he took to Instagram for his latest project, Geography of Poverty, using the social app’s mapping feature to pinpoint California’s poorest communities. In the December he was named TIME’s Instagram Photographer of the Year.

California always seemed special and unique in terms of how it symbolised promise and progress, so it seemed somehow symbolic to begin there and travel east, but what has surprised me is the similarities I have encountered as I travelled from one community to another. All these diverse communities are connected, not least in their powerlessness. In the mainstream media, poverty is often looked at in isolation, but it is an American problem. It seems to me that it goes unreported because it does not fit the way America sees itself.

After two decades of concentrating on California’s Central Valley, Black expanded his project to the rest of the country.

His on-going project The Geography of Poverty, saw him travelling 48,000 miles across 44 States to photograph designated ‘poverty areas’ and highlight the growing gap between rich and poor and Matt Black was awarded the W. Eugene Smith Memorial Prize for this project. He also received the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award in 2016 and was named Senior Fellow at the Emerson Collective. With his high contrast black and white being described as ‘stark and impressionistic.’ I thought they were highly atmospheric, maybe a little too romantic despite the subject matter, and had a grainy retrospective feel about them which reminded me very much of the early work of Sebastião Salgado, Other Americas, plus his Kuwait body of work.

Going back to the theme of ‘the journey’ for Black, the goal was to use it as a storytelling mechanism.

Every stop along the way has a level of poverty above 20%, I wanted to find a continuous route that linked all of these towns, which are no more than a couple of hundred miles from each other. And the fact that you can link all of these communities from coast to coast and back again is telling.

What I took away from Matt Black was:

The idea of always beginning from home and comparing photographic experiences to what you know of yourself, it ‘contextualizes what I am seeing.’

Taking a journey away from home and then returning.

Looking for similar motifs in the unfamiliar

Exploring similarities within different communities

Seeing a lot very fast

Inclusion of captions/text/interviews with people

Thinking about different platforms for the results

Antoine d’Agata

Born in Marseilles, Antoine d’Agata left France in 1983 and remained overseas for the next ten years. Finding himself in New York in 1990, he pursued an interest in photography by taking courses at the International Centre of Photography, where his teachers included Larry Clark and Nan Goldin.

Antoine d’Agata was totally different from Matt Black. He spoke very little, put on a PowerPoint presentation set to a throbbing beat to display his images, and let the work speak for itself. Growing up as a punk in Marseilles had a very strong influence on his life and subsequent photography. His images were firmly within the realms of Daidō Moriyama; they were black and white, grainy, out of focus and looked at the seedier side of life. For his first books published in 1998, De Mala Muerte and Male Noche, d’Agata ‘travelled the world to document characters of the night’s further edges: for sex workers, addicts, war-torn communities and homeless.’ d’Agata informed us that he looked for fragility.

In 2001, he published Hometown and won the Niépce Prize for young photographers. ‘Compiling intimate and provocative images, the book focused on his travels in France and personal journey.’

Unlike Black he undertook no preparation prior to setting out, other than ‘mental preparation’. d’Agata travels the world, documenting his personal experiences and encounters, and oddly more often than not hands his camera over to others to take the photographs. His intention is to be part of the action, not outside it…he did not wish to be a tourist or a consumer…and a lot of the images I suspected him to be the subject of, or part of,  were very dubious in nature, and I suspect he had consumed many things… When asked how he knew his work was finished , or know that the journey was over he replied ‘when the darkness became ‘normal’ and it becomes comfortable…’

He believes in going as far as he can as a human being, but always considers the responsible way in which to represent something. Having said that he thinks he challenges Magnum’s comfort zone, but thinks his work has documentary value. D’Agata has lived as he stated a very murky and nomadic life. Immersing himself in his subjects,  ‘prostitutes and other marginalised misfits,’ and never shies away from dangerous, drug-addled and sex-fuelled situations.

Most of my photographic strategies are aimed at reaching the highest levels of pleasure or unconsciousness and, in this sense, sex and drugs are highly enjoyable working methods. Part of my recent work could be easily described as some chaotic and biased sociology of ecstasy. I live my life with people who use pleasure as a way to impose their existence and identity in a world that denies them every right. But pleasure can’t be separated from pain and alienation. Pleasure is still a dark territory to me and I am exhausted exploring its limits. It’s just a route. Satisfaction isn’t the aim. Feeling might be the point. I’m hooked on adrenaline.

Because he get so involved in the lives of his subjects he does not think his work is voyeuristic nor exploitative. Since 2005 Antoine d’Agata has had no settled place of residence but has worked around the world, he has a passion for his work that does not always fit a commercial niche and runs many workshops to make ends meet.

What did I take away from Antoine?

Don’t do drugs!

Don’t be scared of looking at the uncomfortable things in life

To not always consume but to try to sometimes be part of the action

Challenge reality and the understanding of the world through the eyes of others

Photographs don’t always have to be about aethetics

Research

https://www.magnumphotos.com/photographer/matt-black/

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/may/29/matt-black-photography-poverty-geography-california-us-sean-ohagan

http://www.galleryintell.com/matt-black-geography-of-poverty/

https://www.magnumphotos.com/?s=Antoine+d%27Agata

https://www.vice.com/en_au/article/ppzp78/fear-desire-drugs-fucking-608-v17n11

 

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Own Research Magnum Photos Now: Storytelling Telling Stories: the Single Image vs. the Series – Matt Stuart and Patrick Zachmann @ The Barbican July 17 2017

This year Magnum and the Barbican Centre have been cultivating a relationship where they have been organising both talks and exhibitions featuring Magnum photographers. The talk which I recently attended  was concerned with the art of story-telling and the debate as to whether or not this can be achieved with a single image.

The audience was given a brief history of the founding of Magnum and the diversity of its membership and more contemporary approaches to the different genres: Henri Cartier-Bresson, ‘the artistically inclined street photographer’; Robert Capa the archetypal photojournalist; George Rodger the tireless traveller; and David ‘Chim’ Seymour  the concerned humanitarian.’

The discussion was chaired by Geoff Dyer; the invited photographers were Patrick Zachmann and Magnum nominee Matt Stuart, and they argued their different viewpoints with regards to the use of a single image or series of images as a tool for storytelling.

Matt Stuart

Matt Stuart explained that his approach is based upon the ideals of Cartier-Bresson: ‘Sometimes there’s a unique picture whose composition possesses such vigour and richness and whose content so radiates outward from it that the single picture is a whole story in itself.’ Despite being interested in stories he believes that the single image is the ‘holy grail.’

Stuart acknowledged that this isn’t always easy, having spent the last 20 years or so ‘walking the streets of London hunting the single image and the only thing that links these single images together is the place.’ The first book he published contained 10 years of work. Stuart went onto explain how his single images ‘contain a depth of narrative’:

There’s often one picture that I find that you can pull from something if you absolutely have to, and my daily grind is to try and get one picture from the day of what actually happened.

An interview for Lensculture gave more background details on his approach and 2016 Magnum nomination. Recently he has been trying to vary his approach and tried to take images just for one week, then just one day followed by just one hour to sharpen his observation skills and trying to tell a story with a minimum/one image.

As he explained, he flicked through a PowerPoint presentation., highlighting the importance of spotting body language and background information that provides juxtaposition, or cohesion:

Sometimes, especially with street photography, stories can be implied, and in this particular picture I think there’s an interesting collision between these two people. There’s a man who is pretty evidently lost in the foreground, and you can tell he’s lost due to the fact he has a map, he’s on the telephone and he’s covering his mouth. Body language is something that I’m quite interested in and something that I look at a lot when I’m out on the street, so I realize when people appear to be lost. The two young men behind him know exactly where they’re going, or at least that’s the implication because one of them is pointing confidently. The difference between the two has made this strange swirl of gestures of two men who know where they’re going and one man doesn’t.

GB. England. London. 2006. Oxford Street.

Stuart continued the talk by telling us how he now has tried to change what he occasionally photographs, previously his images were about capturing humour and odd situations but more recently he has been drawn to the more serious reportage side of documenting image that, within them, narrate an entire story. Examples he cites and images he showed included the recent tragedy of The Grenfell Tower fire and the London Bridge terror attacks. Both of these events had to be handled with respect and dignity as they were both complex  and emotional. He told us of people who wanted to tell him their story, of people staring open mouthed as events unfolded.

After the terror attacks on June 3rd, 2017, Stuart walked with intent, hoping to capture a photograph that summed up the mood of the day. He showed us a series of images he took of a woman crossing London Bridge with a Union Flag hanging from her handbag, discussing why he went with one over the other, the discrete semiotics that helped convey the mood.

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I decided to get up very early in the morning and go to London Bridge. I was there at 5 o’clock in the morning; I was looking at people walking along the bridge and coming to work, and at about 8 o’clock, which I know is a busy time on London bridge, I saw a woman walking with a Union Jack in her bag. It was just the stick poking out, and I thought, ‘That’s strange that she is walking with a Union Jack in her bag,’ so I followed her, which is something you do a lot as a street photographer, and took two frames that I find interesting. I found her very relevant to the day. In another moment she pulled out the flag and just walked across this bridge with it, so there’s two images with different moods – one potentially positive and one more sorrowful.

He asked us to consider which is weirder? The man who carries things or the man who photographs the man who carries things?

Brexit came up as a typical and topical subject…something that I will think about with my assignment 5.

Patrick Zachmann

Patrick Zachmann’s approach to photography is the exact opposite of Matt Stuart’s, preferring a ‘long-term approach to building a story.’

He feels his commitment is to tell stories about the outside world and himself, he believes by doing this he understands himself better through looking at ‘others’.

Some of his images, whilst looking like straight documentary, occasionally are not quite what they would seem. The example that sticks most in my mind was a Chinese drama student demonstrating against the then current regime. Zachmann captured her performance piece as she writhed on the floor in agony, without the captioning on the image you would have thought she had just been struck down. Although his image was a truthful documentation of an event, by not revealing the entire picture the narrative was open to interpretation, maybe even misrepresentation. This is why he strongly believes that captions are an important tool for his style of documentary photography. He also keeps a diary to ensure that when he edits and uses his images at a later date he always knows the context and backstory, photography is not enough in his opinion it can go further.

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His work as been described ‘incorporating cinematic ploys…interwoven with narrative strands of fiction.’ Zachmann gets to know his subject matter over a long time, approaching it from many different angles and perspectives, which enables him to have a multi-layered narrative. Again a relief to hear was his confession that there will be images that are weaker than others, ‘like music there is a rhythm.’ The images that really make no sense he does not include. NB to self to edit ruthlessly.

At first he did not identify with Magnum and even now he does not allow the organisation to pressure him into doing things he does not want to do. He advises anyone ‘keep going your way.’

Zachmann and Stuart, despite having totally different photographic voices were appreciative of each other’s work. Zachmann commented:

I’m not like Matt Stuart but I really like his work as a street photographer. I have never identified with street photographers. From the beginning, my commitment to photography is to tell stories – about the world, about others, and about myself and my own family, often through that work.

I am very often asked if I consider myself more a photojournalist or an artist and I have never been very clear on my answer, and I’ve recently come to think that I am both.

This was quite reassuring when you are struggling to pigeon-hole your own take on the ‘art’ of photography, finding your own voice.

Zachmann is fascinated by diaspora – a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale. Diaspora can also refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland – he considered his own family history and wondered how much of this influenced his approach.

His projects are many and varied and focus on groups in society from a range  of different countries. He gains inspiration from many sources, both film and newspapers. For example one of the earliest projects that brought him acclaim – his body of regarding the police and mafia in Naples – was inspired by a small newspaper story.  This developed into ‘a collection of cinematographic photographs’ which culminated in his first book, Madonna! in 1982. This was eventually accompanied by a fictional novel inspired by the experience illustrated with the images, published a year later. Note to self on how you can further develop an idea and sustain your practice.

As mentioned earlier Zachmann spent much time in China, his first trip being in 1982, and returning on several occasions over the following decades, taking inspiration from the Shanghai film noirs of the 1930s.  Once more this investigation into another lifestyle led him to a smaller group within that society as he examined ‘the underbelly of the city.’

I really found a love for these movies, which were dealing with the underworld of the Triads – the Chinese mafia, secret societies, prostitution and illegal gambling; all these things interested me as a photographer, visually. Then, when I started my work on Chinese diaspora and then I continued working in China, I realized that, consciously or unconsciously…that’s also what I think makes the difference between a journalist and an artist. When you’re a journalist you cannot be led by your unconscious or by interesting light or faces, but you have to look for information.

Being patient and forging relationships also helped him capture hard to document images. Zachmann photographed the now long-gone “Forbidden” or “Walled City, a ‘lawless area in Hong Kong that belonged to mainland, communist China.’ Gaining access through a nervous guide, referred to as “W” enabled him to photograph the dark world of the Walled City. He thinks that the quality of light is the most effective tool when telling a story, shooting in black and white with a Leica. The atmospheric images reminded me of Bladerunner.

189d1875182028727249739139cee810--monochrome-photography-black-white-photography

Zachmann was photographing Beijing youth in 1988 to 89, he captured images of the Tiananmen Square protests at their beginnings, while there was more of a festival feeling, describing it as a “Chinese Woodstock.”

Having spent a great deal of time understanding Chinese culture from various entry points, Zachmann’s images could be said to be ‘more nuanced, than the foreign press. A fact that I have discovered to be true – it is easier to photograph what you know or have researched.

Research

http://www.mattstuart.com/

https://www.magnumphotos.com/photographer/patrick-zachmann/

 

 

Post-Colonial ethnography

Now I am back in the world of study, having spent far too long applying for a new job, and eventually securing one, dealing with personal ‘moments,’ attending weddings and generally spending time over the summer on my house and garden, it is time to look at Post-colonial ethnography. (As well as catch up on other study bits and generally panic about deadlines)

 

Having looked closely at control and discipline we are now asked to explore an aspect of that, according to Elizabeth Edwards (1992, p.105),  a research Professor in Photographic History and Director of Photographic History Research Centre at De Montfort University, photographers and photography is obsessive in wanting to ‘record, catalogue, explore, reveal, compare and measure the human body…’ This was especially so during the Victorian colonial photography era. The methods used by the ethnographers and anthropologists during the mid-nineteenth century are now recognised as demonstrating ‘the unequal relationship between the colonisers and the colonised.’Three names we are introduced to are: Thomas H Huxley, Louis Agassiz and J T Zealy.

 

Thomas H Huxley was a pioneering biologist and educator who supported Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and introduced an anthropometric method which all colonial governors were asked to adopt. Naturalist and scientist Louis Agassiz, in another project, commissioned J T Zealy to photograph slaves in Columbia, South Carolina.On reflection, have the historical and contemporary photographers who captured indigenous groups, accurately represented the peoples they have studied? Were they occasionally ‘faked’ or romanticized? Who were the intended audience? Was it science or just another excuse to gawp at the exotic ‘other’ or an attempt to make the colonisers feel superior?
In discussing this topic you cannot avoid the name of Edward S. Curtis or the term ‘the Curtis syndrome.’  Edwards (2001) comments on his ‘obsessive commitment’ in capturing tribes of the North American Indian by stating “… documenting traditional culture in the face of irreversible change is not necessarily pure ‘documentary’. It evokes feelings of nostalgia at the passing of cultures and an aetheticised ‘nobility’ which transcends documentary.”Martha Rosler was not so kind and wrote: ‘[he]… was also interested in preserving someone’s cultural heritage… he carried a stock of more or less authentic, more or less appropriate (often less, on both counts) clothing and accoutrements with which to deck out his sitters…the heritage was considered sufficiently preserved… In Curtis; case, the photographic record was often retouched, gold-toned and bound in gold-decorated volumes… financed by J.P.Morgan.’Which makes you question all over again the authenticity and intention of the photographs we see. Do Curtis’ 20 volumes which span 30 years work contain a realism? I would hope that somewhere in there, even if a bit of a jumble, he managed to capture several tribes of vanishing people.

Bronislaw Malinowski, sometimes described as ‘the father of the functionalist school of anthropology’ (which is based on the notion that all the parts of the society work together as an integrated whole) perceived, and substantiated, ‘the fact that the mind of the “primitive” man was essentially no different than that of “civilized” peoples.’ He also held the view that the ‘ethnographic subject disappears at the very moment of its recognition.’ He saw that information being recorded was not a true reflection of the peoples being studied, not their way of life nor their intellect. Also, that once scientists arrived en masse they influenced the behaviours of others.

Malinowski vigorously emphasized the importance of immersing oneself deeply in the indigenous language or languages. But perhaps more than any other researcher before him, Malinowski embraced the value of studying everyday life in all its mundane aspects. Thus for him it was not enough to simply record what tribal members said about their religious beliefs, sexual practices, marriage customs, or trade relationships – it was important to also studying how this measured up to, or played out in, what they did in everyday life.

Exercise

Browse the catalogue Tribal Portraits:Vintage and Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent , Bernard J Shapero Rare Books. Core resources TribalPortraits.pdf and write a brief commentary.

Tribal Portraits: Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent was an exhibition and sale of over 200 rare images dating from 1865 to the present day, some of which had not been on the open market for decades.

A small sample of images are below:

Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--006
African Dinka girls, by George Rodger, 1948. The Dinka are Sudanese tribespeople who rely on cattle herding at riverside camps in the dry season and grow millet and other grains in fixed settlements during the rainy season
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--001
Benin Woman Smoking, by Hector Acebes, 1953
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent

 

Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--010
Chief Kingo by C Vincenti, 1898
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
 
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--008
Contemporary African Couple by Seydou Keita, 1956. Keita (1921–2001) was a self-taught portrait photographer from Bamako, Mali
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--005
Early Morning Wait at Lake Rudolph, by Mirella Ricciardi, 1968. Lake Rudolph, now known as Lake Turkana, is in Kenya’s arid Great Rift Valley. Up to three million years ago, when the area was more fertile, the lakeside was home for some of humans’ earliest known ancestors
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--003
Five Turbanned Dahomey Women by Irving Penn, 1967. Dahomey in west Africa is now the Republic of Benin
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--002
M’suguma Dancers in Tanzania by C Vincenti, 1898
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--009
Nuba Dancers of Cau, by Leni Riefenstahl, 1975. The Nuba inhabit the Nuba Mountains in Kordofan province, Sudan. Between 1962 and 1969 the filmmaker Riefenstahllived intermittently among the Nuba in remote valleys of Central Sudan, “studying them at close quarters, taking unique and fascinating photographs, which now constitute a lasting record of what was once their way of life … “
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--004
Portrait Study, East Africa, 1875, photographer unknown
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent
Gallery-Tribal-Portraits--007
Children from the Wagogo Tribe Wear Special Headgear for the Circumcision Ceremony, by George Rodger, 1947. The Wagogo or Gogo are based in the Dodoma Region of central Tanzania. They are traditionally pastoralist, but in recent decades have migrated to urban areas or work on plantations
Photograph: Tribal Portraits Vintage & Contemporary Photographs from the African Continent

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Noting that most of the images on the Guardian website only featured frontal nudity of women I thought I would address the balance! I also love this image as the photographer focuses on the serious business of capturing a posed portrait of what I assume to be a form of traditional dress other people aimlessly mill about or intentionally photobomb the image. None are adorned like the subjects so it is easy to see why the audiences from the Victorian era, or even now given depending on the images, people assume that different cultures walk around in such exotic attire, or naked all the time, which obviously they don’t.

From researching various photographic works there is a tendency from photographers to follow suit, no matter what the genre. The way in which reviewers and curators write about the images also romanticise various bodies of work:

On Sebastião Salgado:

These Sebastião Salgado photographs were shot during a time of extreme industrial growth, marred by harsh social inequalities and political turmoil. The harshness and cruelty of this period is present at every turn in Salgado’s arresting images, juxtaposed with these curious observations of tenderness and romance in humanity. The result is a remarkable series of emotive photographs, that invite us into a world where – in Salgado’s own words – “dignity and poverty ride on the same horse”.

 On Peter Lavery:
…the Xingu and the Yawalapeti are lucky to have him as their silent recorder, their likeness shimmering for prosperity in an alchemical mix of silver and whatever precious metals it may take…
As to be expected with a catalogue devoted to one area of photography the subject matter is broadly similar despite a few different approaches to capturing the portraits. Are or reactions different to these different approaches? I’ll try to sum it up as I go along…difficult when their is so much material to comment on.One of my favourite images is that on the front cover, taken by George Rodger: I like the silhouette, shadow and the framing, the candid nature of the image, even if possibly staged, and the naturalness of the action. However, not all his images were given this treatment as seen above, although none seem to take advantage or show any disrespect.rodger-keyholeMirella Ricciardi was another featured photographer, and not one I had previously heard of…typical blurb on her site reads:

Born in Kenya, then still a colony of British East Africa; to an Italian father and a French mother, Mirella Ricciardi grew up on the shores of Lake Naivasha in a household that was both sophisticated and wild. She was married at twenty-five to the Italian adventurer Lorenzo Ricciardi, who swept her off her feet and hired her as the photographer on the film he was making in Kenya.

Having finally severed her umbilical tie to the African continent, she now lives in the East Sussex English countryside surrounded by her Archive.

Romantic again, also smacks of colonialism even if not intentional, the ‘I have embraced the wild primitiveness of Africa yet due to my upbringing and background remain apart from it and sophisticated and above all that….’ attitude. Her images seem to veer more towards the posed and artistic and still fall into the trap of naming people within a ‘group’ rather than as individuals.

I found it quite hard to categorically state that I did or did not like the way in which some of the photographers worked. For example Hector Acebes seemed to take overtly sensual images of nubile young boys and girls yet on the other-hand capture some genuinely interesting ‘activity’ and landscape shots.

However, he wasn’t as bad as Lehnert & Landrock:

The photographic studio of Lehnert & Landrock, active in Tunisia and Cairo in the early years of the twentieth century, specialised in producing images of the landscapes, architecture and people of North Africa. Made in large part for a European audience, the work was originally distributed through a series of monographs, as well as being sold from their own shops in the form of original prints, heliogravures and reproduction gravure and lithographic postcards. Since the 1980s, this work has enjoyed the renewed attention of scholars and collectors.

 

 

Lehnert_&_Landrock_-_211_-_Bedouine
Lehnert & Landrock – 211 – Bedouine.jpg  From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

Contemporary photographer Antoine Schneck, applied a totally different creative technique removing almost all contextual information from his portraiture.

There was a smattering of images either taken in a studio or outside against painted backdrops. I always find this odd if trying to reveal an indigenous population within its own environment. The photographers who fell into this trap were C. Vincenti, Pascal Sebah, and even Irving Penn…these images remind me of the typological approach of August Sander.

In conclusion this catalogue illustrates the diverse nature of ethnographical anthropological approaches in capturing African tribes. None supply the entire context or background story, but then what photograph can or does? On reviewing these images and harking back to the exercise on ‘the gaze’ it does make me think twice about how I should represent any future subject matter myself… note…don’t use bed sheets and palm fronds!

Primitive typologies/Research Point

Under this section we are introduced to the work of Peter Lavery ‘Of Humankind’, David Bruce’s images of the San, Juan Echeverra’s studio images of the Himba of Namibia and Alvaro Leiva’s work regarding peoples of the Amazon Basin, and to question if and how photographers capture indigenous peoples honestly and without falling into the many traps there are associated with this genre. The traps being:

  • Decontextualisation – primitive nudity /erotica (e.g. Lehnert & Landrock)
  • Romanticism – the ‘noble savage’ (e.g. Edward S. Curtis)
  • Primivitism – projecting exotic ‘other’ (e.g. in some cases George Rodger)
  • Dehumanisation – the treatment of subjects as specimens not individuals (e.g. J T Zealy )

Peter Lavery

is certainly guilty of decontextualised tribal portraits with his use of B&W portraits taken against a black velvet backdrop, which harks back to the Victorian era and typology aesthetic, thus reducing his subjects to stereotypes. This is quite at odds with a statement made on his website which was to:

make portraits for himself of people he met in his travels and who interested him not as types but as individuals.

My argument is also underlined  by his lack of captioning or use of the individuals’ names.
Juan Echeverria

 

also parallels with Lavery to a certain extent as much of his work it decontextualises the subject from their environment by placing them against a plain backdrop. In some instances the images are printed in sepia or B&W. There is, yet again, a smattering of nudity, some of which seems in context whilst others appear voyeuristic.HimbaDavid Bruceseems to treat his subjects with a more gently human approach to his direct portraiture. As with others many are against a plain backdrop and taken in B&W but he seems to engage with his subjects, they are smiling, pulling faces, interacting with him on an equal level. The variety of expressions reveal the engagement rather than the usual serious/bored detachment often found. He includes small detail shots as well as wider contextual everyday activities. I found myself warming to his body of work.

 

Alvero Leiva

was born in 1970 in Madrid. In 1989 he started shooting travel photography, and has travelled to over eighty countries on assignment. In conjunction with his commercial work, he has worked for the past seven years on The River People. The project documents the daily lives of people along five of the world’s major rivers – the Amazon, Ganges, Mekong, Mississippi and Niger.

Researching this photographer was made fun by his website seeming to be out of action for a while and a typo in the course notes spelling his name Leyva! A selection of his work can be seen here and he was featured in an edition of foto8 magazine.

From the small amount of work I could find he also shoots in B&W and uses large landscapes, small detail and incorporates more natural/candid shots than formally posed.

In completing my own research the obvious name that appeared was Jimmy Nelson, I then thought of Sebastião Salgado’s body of work Genesis, and also that by Jacob Maentz. There were many more I could use but have previously mentioned them in other posts when exploring how famine is presented or capturing the exotic ‘other’.

The reasons behind believing they succeed more often than not is that they generally, not always (they do also fall into some of the traps, especially Salgado)

  • use colour over B&W
  • use candid photography
  • shoot within the natural environment
  • name the subjects with captions

Jimmy Nelson

wanted to ‘create carefully orchestrated portraits of these amazing peoples, at their absolute proudest.’  Endearingly honest his website tells us:

Jimmy Nelson is not an anthropologist or a man of science. He does not claim to have the knowledge to address the questions we have about indigenous and other traditional cultures. He is a photographer and a storyteller. What started as a naive engagement with the peoples he met during work assignments, has over a period of three decades turned into a personal project. The book ‘Before they pass away’ is an homage to the cultures he will probably never fully understand, but who will never stop luring him to explore.

In an interview in the Guardian (2014) he admits his pictures are ‘intended to be aesthetic rather than factual…There is no sociology, no statistics. It’s how I see the world..’

His images are definitely more on the ‘Art’ end of the scale but he tempers this with captions, naming not only the tribe but the individual people within his images.

AG_Exhibition_JimmyNelson_3
Tumbu, Hango, Peter, Hapiya, Kati, Hengene and Steven Huli Wigmen, Ambua Falls, Tari Valley, Papua New Guinea 2010.

Rather than focusing on the fact they are vanishing Nelson has since altered his view he now believes :

Where there are challenges, there are solutions. he has come to appreciate the pride, strength, vigour, honour and resilience of the people he asked to pose for his lense. This provides him with an unending inspiration to continue his work.

In this light, ‘before’ attains a meaning that is diametrically opposed to the fatalistic reading of doom. ‘Before’ signals a moment of opportunity, a call for action and an appeal. To decide with confidence that we value what we have and will take our support into the future.

Jacob Maentz

again uses colour and occasionally relevant captions, even if once more he enjoys taking slightly romantic and artistically composed images.

Badjao (Badjau) community in Mindanao, Spearfisherman.
Badjao (Baju) spearfisherman. (Mindanao, Philippines)

 

 

 

 

Philippines - Typhoon Haiyan Aftermath
Typhoon Haiyan Aftermath – A woman in rubble covers her nose from the strong smell. (Tacloban, Philippines)

The above shot shows he does not shy away from the difficult situations either. When downloading this image from his website it was called ‘Yolanda’ so presumably although her name is not used within the caption, Maentz knows exactly who she was.

 

Research

Davidbrucephotography.co.za. (2017). Ju/’hoansi Bushmen | DAVID BRUCE. [online] Available at: http://davidbrucephotography.co.za/juhoansi-bushmen/ [Accessed 29 August 2017]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/thuxley.html [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

Jimmynelson.com. (2017). Jimmy & Projects – JIMMY NELSON. [online] Available at: https://www.jimmynelson.com/jimmy-projects [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://peterlavery.com/portfolio/humankind/ [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://www.juanecheverria.com/  [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://www.anotherafrica.net/art-culture/antoine-schneck-a-hyper-reality-of-burkinabe-portraiture [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/edward-curtis-epic-project-to-photograph-native-americans-162523282/  [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://everydayarchive.org/awt/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/rosler-martha_in-around-afterthoughts.pdf [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/ [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

http://www.gillianhayes.com/Inf231F12/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ethnography-ways-submit.pdf [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

https://www.theguardian.com/science/gallery/2008/nov/25/tribal-portraits-african-photography [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

https://www.oca-student.com/sites/default/files/oca-content/key-resources/res-files/tribalportraits.pdf [Accessed 29 Aug 2017]

https://www.culturewhisper.com/r/article/preview/5337 [Accessed 29 August 2017]

http://davidbrucephotography.co.za/juhoansi-bushmen/ [Accessed 29 August 2017]